How to Determine Prediabetes in Seniors?
A blood test for sugar does not determine this condition: on an empty stomach, glucose will be within the normal range. It can be “caught” only with the help of the glucose tolerance test. It involves several steps:
75 g of glucose (purchased at the pharmacy in advance), dissolved in 100 ml of water, is drunk.
Another hour you need to sit quietly under the office, then blood is taken again for sugar.
The second hour of calm behavior, without meals and water, without physical activity.
Thereafter, glucose is determined once again in capillary blood (from a finger).
The result of a blood test taken after 2 hours is important:
Prediabetes may be identified if the sugar in it is from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / l;
Below 7.8 mmol / l – the norm
above 11.1 mmol / l – diabetes mellitus.
The glucose tolerance test fails if:
The patient had poor sleep last night.
They forgot about the analysis.
They have a malignant tumor.
The had surgery less than a month ago.
They are diagnosed with a severe case of chronic hepatitis.
The patient is on a strict low carb diet.
The second analysis that helps determine prediabetes is glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin. If it is more than 5.9%, it means that during the next three months, blood glucose may be above the norm & stay there for a long time.
Another important analysis is the insulin resistance index. It involves determining the ratio of glucose and insulin on an empty stomach. Normally, it should be from 0 to 2.7. If the indicator is higher and the glucose tolerant test shows the numbers 7.8-11.1 – this is prediabetes. If the insulin resistance index is high plus the glucose tolerance test shows numbers above 11.1 mmol / L, this is type 2 diabetes.
Unfortunately, the test for insulin resistance does not always speak about diabetes. High rates are also determined in diseases of the kidneys or liver. They disappear after their treatment.
Who needs to be urgently checked for prediabetes?
- have relatives with diabetes;
- suffer from obesity, especially its abdominal (android) type;
- prefers not to move;
- suffer from hypertension;
- have heart disease;
- suffer from diseases of the biliary tract or pancreas;
- experience the recurrence of diseases of the kidneys or urinary organs;
- have bad habits including smoking, abuse of alcohol or sweets;
- suffer from neuropathies (diseases of the peripheral nerves), the causes of which are not identified;
- have darker skin around the neck.
- IMP: Presently, prediabetes is not covered by 2019 Medicare advantage plans in the US. Learn more at https://www.medicareadvantage2019.org/